September 2020

Randomised Phase II study comparing alternating cycles of sunitinib and everolimus vs standard sequential administration in first-line metastatic renal carcinoma (SUNRISES study)

Rodriguez-Vida A, Bamias A, Esteban E, et al.
BJU Int 2020 Jul 12
DOI: 10.1111/bju.15165

Abstract

Objective

Targeted therapies have been a mainstay of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment paradigm for the better part of two decades. Multikinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGF-TKIs) comprise nearly all targeted therapies in RCC, having been prospectively tested through large, multi-institutional phase III trials. Tivozanib is a VEGF-TKI with high selectivity for VEGF receptors 1–3. Tivozanib has been under investigation for nearly 15 years, with a robust portfolio of preclinical and clinical data. This review seeks to characterize tivozanib within the context of RCC by highlighting preclinical and early clinical trials alongside the phase III trials in RCC, TIVO-1, and TIVO-3. We also aim to explore further trials of tivozanib, whether in combination with other agents and/or in differing disease settings, while providing insight into the utility of tivozanib as a clinical tool for the management of RCC.

Patients and Methods

SUNRISES, a randomised open-label Phase II study, investigated the efficacy of alternating cycles of sunitinib and everolimus vs standard sequential treatment of sunitinib followed by everolimus upon progression. Treatment naïve patients with clear cell mRCC were included. Alternating treatment consisted on 12 weeks of sunitinib, followed by 12 weeks of everolimus. The primary endpoint was the progression free survival (PFS) rate at 1 year. The secondary endpoints included the median PFS, overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety.

Results

Accrual was low due to the advent of new generation therapies, and the study was stopped prematurely. Only 41 patients out of the planned 102 patients were accrued, and randomised in a 2:1 ratio (15 patients to the control arm, 26 to the experimental arm). In all, 60.9% of patients had performance status (PS) 0 and 39% PS 1; 63% had a favourable prognostic risk profile, while 36% were intermediate risk. The primary endpoint was not met. The 1 year PFS rate was 49.7% (experimental arm) vs 84.62% (control arm; P = 0.11). There was a trend towards fewer Grade ≥3 adverse events with the alternating approach (50% vs 73.3%; P = 0.14). The median OS was similar in both treatment arms. The other secondary endpoints favoured the control arm.

Conclusions

The study failed to show any benefit of alternating cycles of sunitinib and everolimus in patients with mRCC. The alternating approach using an mTOR inhibitor does not seem to prevent the occurrence of resistance to VEGFR blockade.

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Tivozanib in renal cell carcinoma: a new approach to previously treated disease

Salgia NJ , Zengin ZB, Pal SK.
Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2020 May 22;12:1758835920923818.
DOI: 10.1177/1758835920923818

Abstract

Targeted therapies have been a mainstay of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment paradigm for the better part of two decades. Multikinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGF-TKIs) comprise nearly all targeted therapies in RCC, having been prospectively tested through large, multi-institutional phase III trials. Tivozanib is a VEGF-TKI with high selectivity for VEGF receptors 1–3. Tivozanib has been under investigation for nearly 15 years, with a robust portfolio of preclinical and clinical data. This review seeks to characterize tivozanib within the context of RCC by highlighting preclinical and early clinical trials alongside the phase III trials in RCC, TIVO-1, and TIVO-3. We also aim to explore further trials of tivozanib, whether in combination with other agents and/or in differing disease settings, while providing insight into the utility of tivozanib as a clinical tool for the management of RCC.

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Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Prognostic Factor of Disease-free Survival in Postnephrectomy High-risk Locoregional Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of the S-TRAC Trial

Patel A, Ravaud A, Motzer RJ, et al.
Clin Cancer Res 2020 Jun 16.
DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0704

Abstract

Purpose

In the S-TRAC trial, adjuvant sunitinib improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with placebo in patients with locoregional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at high risk of recurrence. This post hoc exploratory analysis investigated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for predictive and prognostic significance in the RCC adjuvant setting.

Experimental design

Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional analyses were performed on baseline NLR and change from baseline at week 4 to assess their association with DFS. Univariate P values were two-sided and based on an unstratified log-rank test.

Results

609 of 615 patients had baseline NLR values; 574 patients had baseline and week 4 values. Sunitinib-treated patients with baseline NLR <3 had longer DFS versus placebo (7.1 vs. 4.7; HR, 0.71; P = 0.02). For baseline NLR ≥3, DFS was similar regardless of treatment (sunitinib 6.8 vs. placebo not reached; HR, 1.03; P = 0.91). A ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 was associated with longer DFS versus no change (6.8 vs. 5.3 years; HR, 0.71; P = 0.01). A greater proportion of sunitinib-treated patients had ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 (71.2%) versus placebo (17.4%). Patients with ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 received a higher median cumulative sunitinib dose (10,137.5 mg) versus no change (8,168.8 mg) or ≥25% increase (6,712.5 mg).

Conclusions

In the postnephrectomy high-risk RCC patient cohort, low baseline NLR may help identify those most suitable for adjuvant sunitinib. A ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 may be an early indicator of those most likely to tolerate treatment and derive DFS benefit.

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Compensatory Changes in Parenchymal Mass and Function after Radical Nephrectomy

Palacios D, Caraballo E, Tanaka H, et al.
J Urol 2020 Jul;204(1):42-49
DOI: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000797

Abstract

Purpose

Loss of renal function remains a major limitation of radical nephrectomy. The extent of renal functional compensation by the preserved kidney after radical nephrectomy has not been adequately studied in this elderly population with comorbidities.

Materials and Methods

A total of 273 patients treated with radical nephrectomy without end stage renal disease with available preoperative nuclear renal scans were included in the analysis. Renal functional compensation was defined as percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate of the preserved kidney after radical nephrectomy. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration formula up to 5 years postoperatively. Preoperative/postoperative parenchymal volumes of the preserved kidney were measured from cross-sectional imaging. Multiple regression was used to identify predictive factors for renal functional compensation.

Results

Median age was 67 years and 67% of the patients were male. Overall 70% had hypertension, 26% diabetes and 37% preexisting chronic kidney disease. Locally advanced (T3a or greater) tumors were found in 53% of cases. Renal functional compensation was observed at 2 weeks (median 10%) and increased during the first 3 months (median 26%) after radical nephrectomy. Functional stability was then observed to 5 years. Renal parenchymal volume increased a median of 10% at 3 to 12 months but in addition, the functional efficiency per unit of parenchymal volume also increased 8% (estimated glomerular filtration rate units/cm3 of parenchyma was 0.236 postoperatively vs 0.208 preoperatively, p=0.004). Age (-0.85, p <0.01), global preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (-0.28, p <0.01) and split renal function of the removed kidney (0.61, p <0.01) were independent predictors of renal functional compensation.

Conclusions

Percent renal functional compensation after radical nephrectomy is greater in younger patients, when preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate is lower and when the removed kidney has more robust function. Increases in measurable parenchymal mass and functional efficiency contribute substantially to renal functional compensation.

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