Artículos

Exposure-response modeling of cabozantinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Implications for patient care

Castellano D, Maroto JP, Benzaghou F, et al.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2020 Sep;89:102062
DOI: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102062
Free article

Abstract

Cabozantinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at a dose of 60 mg/day. As with other TKIs, cabozantinib is associated with high interpatient variability in drug clearance and exposure that can significantly impact safety and tolerability across a patient population. To optimize cabozantinib exposure (maintaining efficacy and tolerability) for the individual, patients may require treatment interruption with dose reduction (40 mg/day and then 20 mg/day). In the pivotal Phase 3 METEOR trial, cabozantinib significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival and the objective response rate compared with everolimus in patients with advanced RCC who had received previous treatment with a VEGFR TKI. Dose reductions were common for patients receiving cabozantinib (60%) but effective as only 9% discontinued treatment due to adverse events (AEs). In this review, we discuss pharmacometric analyses that evaluated the impact of cabozantinib dose on efficacy and safety outcomes during the METEOR study. Exposure-response models demonstrate that the risk of experiencing adverse events and dose reduction is increased in patients with low cabozantinib clearance versus typical clearance and decreased in patients with high clearance. Dose reduction of cabozantinib to manage AEs is predicted to have minimal impact on efficacy as AEs are more likely to occur in patients with low clearance and higher exposure to cabozantinib. These analyses further support a dose modification strategy to optimize cabozantinib exposure for individual patients.

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Survival outcomes and independent response assessment with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus sunitinib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: 42-month follow-up of a randomized phase 3 clinical trial

Motzer RJ, Escudier B, McDermott D, et al.
J Immunother Cancer. 2020 Jul;8(2):e000891.
DOI: 10.1136/jitc-2020-000891.

Abstract

Background

The extent to which response and survival benefits with immunotherapy-based regimens persist informs optimal first-line treatment options. We provide long-term follow-up in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) receiving first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab (NIVO+IPI) versus sunitinib (SUN) in the phase 3 CheckMate 214 trial. Survival, response, and safety outcomes with NIVO+IPI versus SUN were assessed after a minimum of 42 months of follow-up.

Methods

Patients with aRCC were enrolled from October 16, 2014, through February 23, 2016. Patients stratified by International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) risk and region were randomized to nivolumab (3 mg/kg) plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab (3 mg/kg) every 2 weeks; or SUN (50 mg) once per day for 4 weeks (6-week cycle). Primary endpoints: overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rate (ORR) per independent radiology review committee in IMDC intermediate-risk/poor-risk patients. Secondary endpoints: OS, PFS, and ORR in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety. Favorable-risk patient outcomes were exploratory.

Results

Among ITT patients, 550 were randomized to NIVO+IPI (425 intermediate/poor risk; 125 favorable risk) and 546 to SUN (422 intermediate/poor risk; 124 favorable risk). Among intermediate-risk/poor-risk patients, OS (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.80) and PFS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62–0.90) benefits were observed, and ORR was higher (42.1% vs 26.3%) with NIVO+IPI versus SUN. In ITT patients, both OS benefits (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61–0.86) and higher ORR (39.1% vs 32.6%) were observed with NIVO+IPI versus SUN. In favorable-risk patients, HR for death was 1.19 (95% CI, 0.77–1.85) and ORR was 28.8% with NIVO+IPI versus 54.0% with SUN. Duration of response was longer (HR, 0.46–0.54), and more patients achieved complete response (10.1%–12.8% vs 1.4%–5.6%) with NIVO+IPI versus SUN regardless of risk group. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was consistent with previous reports.

Conclusion

NIVO+IPI led to improved efficacy outcomes versus SUN in both intermediate-risk/poor-risk and ITT patients that were maintained through 42 months’ minimum follow-up. A complete response rate >10% was achieved with NIVO+IPI regardless of risk category, with no new safety signals detected in either arm. These results support NIVO+IPI as a first-line treatment option with the potential for durable response.

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Are immune checkpoint inhibitors a valid option for papillary renal cell carcinoma? A multicentre retrospective study

Manon de Vries-Brilland, Marine Gross-Goupil, Valérie Seegers
Eur J Cancer. 2020 Sep;136:76-83.
DOI 10.1016/j.ejca.2020.02.019.

Abstract

Background

Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the most common non-clear cell RCC (nccRCC). Pivotal studies evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitors mostly excluded nccRCC. The aim of this retrospective and multicentre study was to evaluate the activity of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors specifically in metastatic pRCC.

Methods

The primary end-point was time to treatment failure (TTF). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) and treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs).

Results

From 02/2016 to 01/2019, 57 patients with pRCC were included. Histology included 16 (28%) type 1 pRCC, 34 (60%) type 2 pRCC and 7 (12%) unclassified pRCC. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors was used in the first-line setting in 4 patients (7%), in the second-line setting in 32 patients (56%) and in the third-line setting or more in 21 patients (37%). With a median follow-up of 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.9-21.0), the median TTF was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.7-5.0). Among the 55 patients evaluable for ORR, best response was complete response/partial response in 6 patients (11%), stable disease in 18 patients (33%) and progressive disease in 31 patients (56%). The median OS was 14.6 months (95% CI: 9.0- not reached). TRAEs of grade III-IV were noted in 6 patients (10%) leading to treatment discontinuation, and no grade V TRAEs were observed.

Conclusion

PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors exhibit limited activity as monotherapy in this pRCC population, which remains an unmet need. Our findings underline the need for further prospective clinical trials evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitor combinations in patients with pRCC.

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Randomised Phase II study comparing alternating cycles of sunitinib and everolimus vs standard sequential administration in first-line metastatic renal carcinoma (SUNRISES study)

Rodriguez-Vida A, Bamias A, Esteban E, et al.
BJU Int 2020 Jul 12
DOI: 10.1111/bju.15165

Abstract

Objective

Targeted therapies have been a mainstay of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment paradigm for the better part of two decades. Multikinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGF-TKIs) comprise nearly all targeted therapies in RCC, having been prospectively tested through large, multi-institutional phase III trials. Tivozanib is a VEGF-TKI with high selectivity for VEGF receptors 1–3. Tivozanib has been under investigation for nearly 15 years, with a robust portfolio of preclinical and clinical data. This review seeks to characterize tivozanib within the context of RCC by highlighting preclinical and early clinical trials alongside the phase III trials in RCC, TIVO-1, and TIVO-3. We also aim to explore further trials of tivozanib, whether in combination with other agents and/or in differing disease settings, while providing insight into the utility of tivozanib as a clinical tool for the management of RCC.

Patients and Methods

SUNRISES, a randomised open-label Phase II study, investigated the efficacy of alternating cycles of sunitinib and everolimus vs standard sequential treatment of sunitinib followed by everolimus upon progression. Treatment naïve patients with clear cell mRCC were included. Alternating treatment consisted on 12 weeks of sunitinib, followed by 12 weeks of everolimus. The primary endpoint was the progression free survival (PFS) rate at 1 year. The secondary endpoints included the median PFS, overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety.

Results

Accrual was low due to the advent of new generation therapies, and the study was stopped prematurely. Only 41 patients out of the planned 102 patients were accrued, and randomised in a 2:1 ratio (15 patients to the control arm, 26 to the experimental arm). In all, 60.9% of patients had performance status (PS) 0 and 39% PS 1; 63% had a favourable prognostic risk profile, while 36% were intermediate risk. The primary endpoint was not met. The 1 year PFS rate was 49.7% (experimental arm) vs 84.62% (control arm; P = 0.11). There was a trend towards fewer Grade ≥3 adverse events with the alternating approach (50% vs 73.3%; P = 0.14). The median OS was similar in both treatment arms. The other secondary endpoints favoured the control arm.

Conclusions

The study failed to show any benefit of alternating cycles of sunitinib and everolimus in patients with mRCC. The alternating approach using an mTOR inhibitor does not seem to prevent the occurrence of resistance to VEGFR blockade.

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Tivozanib in renal cell carcinoma: a new approach to previously treated disease

Salgia NJ , Zengin ZB, Pal SK.
Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2020 May 22;12:1758835920923818.
DOI: 10.1177/1758835920923818

Abstract

Targeted therapies have been a mainstay of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment paradigm for the better part of two decades. Multikinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGF-TKIs) comprise nearly all targeted therapies in RCC, having been prospectively tested through large, multi-institutional phase III trials. Tivozanib is a VEGF-TKI with high selectivity for VEGF receptors 1–3. Tivozanib has been under investigation for nearly 15 years, with a robust portfolio of preclinical and clinical data. This review seeks to characterize tivozanib within the context of RCC by highlighting preclinical and early clinical trials alongside the phase III trials in RCC, TIVO-1, and TIVO-3. We also aim to explore further trials of tivozanib, whether in combination with other agents and/or in differing disease settings, while providing insight into the utility of tivozanib as a clinical tool for the management of RCC.

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Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Prognostic Factor of Disease-free Survival in Postnephrectomy High-risk Locoregional Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of the S-TRAC Trial

Patel A, Ravaud A, Motzer RJ, et al.
Clin Cancer Res 2020 Jun 16.
DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0704

Abstract

Purpose

In the S-TRAC trial, adjuvant sunitinib improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with placebo in patients with locoregional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at high risk of recurrence. This post hoc exploratory analysis investigated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for predictive and prognostic significance in the RCC adjuvant setting.

Experimental design

Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional analyses were performed on baseline NLR and change from baseline at week 4 to assess their association with DFS. Univariate P values were two-sided and based on an unstratified log-rank test.

Results

609 of 615 patients had baseline NLR values; 574 patients had baseline and week 4 values. Sunitinib-treated patients with baseline NLR <3 had longer DFS versus placebo (7.1 vs. 4.7; HR, 0.71; P = 0.02). For baseline NLR ≥3, DFS was similar regardless of treatment (sunitinib 6.8 vs. placebo not reached; HR, 1.03; P = 0.91). A ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 was associated with longer DFS versus no change (6.8 vs. 5.3 years; HR, 0.71; P = 0.01). A greater proportion of sunitinib-treated patients had ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 (71.2%) versus placebo (17.4%). Patients with ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 received a higher median cumulative sunitinib dose (10,137.5 mg) versus no change (8,168.8 mg) or ≥25% increase (6,712.5 mg).

Conclusions

In the postnephrectomy high-risk RCC patient cohort, low baseline NLR may help identify those most suitable for adjuvant sunitinib. A ≥25% NLR decrease at week 4 may be an early indicator of those most likely to tolerate treatment and derive DFS benefit.

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Compensatory Changes in Parenchymal Mass and Function after Radical Nephrectomy

Palacios D, Caraballo E, Tanaka H, et al.
J Urol 2020 Jul;204(1):42-49
DOI: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000797

Abstract

Purpose

Loss of renal function remains a major limitation of radical nephrectomy. The extent of renal functional compensation by the preserved kidney after radical nephrectomy has not been adequately studied in this elderly population with comorbidities.

Materials and Methods

A total of 273 patients treated with radical nephrectomy without end stage renal disease with available preoperative nuclear renal scans were included in the analysis. Renal functional compensation was defined as percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate of the preserved kidney after radical nephrectomy. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration formula up to 5 years postoperatively. Preoperative/postoperative parenchymal volumes of the preserved kidney were measured from cross-sectional imaging. Multiple regression was used to identify predictive factors for renal functional compensation.

Results

Median age was 67 years and 67% of the patients were male. Overall 70% had hypertension, 26% diabetes and 37% preexisting chronic kidney disease. Locally advanced (T3a or greater) tumors were found in 53% of cases. Renal functional compensation was observed at 2 weeks (median 10%) and increased during the first 3 months (median 26%) after radical nephrectomy. Functional stability was then observed to 5 years. Renal parenchymal volume increased a median of 10% at 3 to 12 months but in addition, the functional efficiency per unit of parenchymal volume also increased 8% (estimated glomerular filtration rate units/cm3 of parenchyma was 0.236 postoperatively vs 0.208 preoperatively, p=0.004). Age (-0.85, p <0.01), global preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (-0.28, p <0.01) and split renal function of the removed kidney (0.61, p <0.01) were independent predictors of renal functional compensation.

Conclusions

Percent renal functional compensation after radical nephrectomy is greater in younger patients, when preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate is lower and when the removed kidney has more robust function. Increases in measurable parenchymal mass and functional efficiency contribute substantially to renal functional compensation.

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Prognostic Value of Histologic Subtype and Treatment Modality for T1a Kidney Cancers

Siev M, Renson A, Tan H, et al
Kidney Cancer, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 49-58, 2020
DOI: 10.3233/KCA-190072

Abstract

Introduction

To evaluate overall survival (OS) of T1a kidney cancers stratified by histologic subtype and curative treatment including partial nephrectomy (PN), percutaneous ablation (PA), and radical nephrectomy (RN).

Materials and Methods

We queried the National Cancer Data Base (2004–2015) for patients with T1a kidney cancers who were treated surgically. OS was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves based on histologic subtype and management. Cox proportional regression models were used to determine whether histologic subtypes and management procedure predicted OS.

Results

46,014 T1a kidney cancers met inclusion criteria. Kaplan Meier curves demonstrated differences in OS by treatment for clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and cystic histologic subtypes (all p < 0.001), but no differences for sarcomatoid (p = 0.110) or collecting duct (p = 0.392) were observed. Adjusted Cox regression showed worse OS for PA than PN among patients with clear cell (HR 1.58, 95% CI [1.44–1.73], papillary RCC (1.53 [1.34–1.75]), and chromophobe RCC (2.19 [1.64–2.91]). OS was worse for RN than PN for clear cell (HR 1.38 [1.28–1.50]) papillary (1.34 [1.16–1.56]) and chromophobe RCC (1.92 [1.43–2.58]). Predictive models using Cox proportional hazards incorporating histology and surgical procedure alone were limited (c-index 0.63) while adding demographics demonstrated fair predictive power for OS (c-index 0.73).

Conclusions

In patients with pathologic T1a RCC, patterns of OS differed by surgery and histologic subtype. Patients receiving PN appears to have better prognosis than both PA and RN. However, the incorporation of histologic subtype and treatment modality into a risk stratification model to predict OS had limited utility compared with variables representing competing risks.

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Electrocoagulation with greased lidocaine gel 2% as hemostatic maneuver after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy: Experimental and preliminary clinical results

Panico V, Simardi L, Faria E, et al.
Arch Cancer Sci Ther. 2020
DOI: 10.29328/journal.acst.1001017

Abstract

Methods

Experimental phase: Performed a partial nephrectomy off clamp in pig model followed by cauterization of lidocaine gel 2% with different power (control, 30W, 50W and 100W) in the kidney resection bed to evaluate efficacy and deep injury extension.

Clinical phase

20 patients submitted to laparoscopic or partial nephrectomy for low risk RENAL score were utilized greased lidocaine gel 2% with 50W in cautery scalpel to hemostasis of renal parenchima to validate efficacy and safety.

Results

Experimental study shows that this technique is effective and promote better hemostasis with 50W and 100W, with deep injury of less than 3 mm. Clinical study confirm efficacy, good control of hemorrage, few complications and no transfusion. Minimal changes in hematocrit, haemoglobin and creatinine were observed.

Conclusions

In this preliminary experience the use of this new alternative to hemostasis for low risk partial nephrectomy was satisfactory and with good intra and postoperative results. The best advantages were safety in terms of the depth thermal injury, low cost and absence of artifacts over the resection area observed at CT scan postoperatively.

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