The Evaluation of Response to Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Open Challenges in the Clinical Practice

Raimondi A, Randon G, Sepe P, et al.
Int. J. Mol. Sci, 20(17), 4263; August 2019


Immunotherapy has changed the therapeutic scenario of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), however the evaluation of disease response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is still an open challenge. Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria are the cornerstone of response assessment to anti-neoplastic treatments, but the use of anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD1) and other immunotherapeutic agents has shown atypical patterns of response such as pseudoprogression. Therefore, immune-modified criteria have been developed in order to more accurately categorize the disease response, even though their use in the everyday clinical practice is still limited. In this review we summarize the available evidence on this topic, with particular focus on the application of immune-modified criteria in the setting of mRCC.

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