Predictors of Survival Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in Latin America and Spain: A Multicentric Analysis

Stênio de Cássio Zequi , Thiago Camelo Mourão, Max Moura de Oliveira, Maria Paula Curado, Guilhermo Gueglio, Walter Henriques da Costa, Alvaro Zuñiga, Ruben Bengió, Carlos Scorticati, Francisco Rodríguez, Ana Maria Autran, Pablo Martínez, Carlos Ameri, Pablo Mingote, Fernando Pablo Secin, Ricardo decía, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Gustavo Cardoso Guimarães, Sidney Glina, Joan Palou and Diego Abreu.
Kidney Cancer xx (20xx) x–xx
DOI 10.3233/KCA-190068
IOS Press



Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a lethal neoplasia. Data from Latin America are scarce, and the distinct ethnic origins of this population could affect predictive or prognostic factors.


We aim to describe a large cohort of non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma, identifying the demographic, clinical, and pathological prognostic factors for survival.


We used a multi-institutional retrospective cohort involving 5,670 patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy across seven Latin American countries and Spain from 1980 to 2016. The variables were compared, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate the overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS).


The clear cell subtype represented 66.7% of RCC, followed by chromophobe (13.7%), papillary (5.2%), and others (14.4%). Furthermore, 72.3% of renal masses were <7.0 cm. The 5-year OS and 10-year OS rates were 86.1% and 69.5%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year CSS rates were 89.9% and 81.8%, respectively. The demographic and clinical predicting factors for OS in the multivariate analysis were age (HR: 2.978), anemia (HR: 1.44), presence of symptoms at presentation (HR: 1.26), Karnofsky score ≤80 (HR: 2.12), and ASA score ≥ 3 (HR: 1.49). The pathological factors were nodal metastasis (HR: 2.14), peri-renal fat invasion (HR: 2.12), inferior vena cava invasion (HR: 1.61), histologic tumoral necrosis (HR: 1.69), and tumor size >7 cm (HR: 1.64).


Our findings agreed with those reported for some developed countries. We emphasize that ASA and peri-renal fat invasion as prognostic factors deserve further study. Information regarding microvascular invasion should be regularly incorporated in pathological reports.

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